Morogoro lies in the agricultural heartland of Tanzania, and is a centre of farming in the southern highlands. Tobacco is grown in the region and consolidated here before going on to market. In addition to its agricultural importance, Morogoro is also the centre for missionary work that goes on in the country, and the various missions and their schools and hospitals are a central feature of the town.
The town of Morogoro lies at the base of the Uluguru Mountains, part of the Eastern Arc chain. Its close location to the peaks makes Morogoro an important stop for hiking trips to the Ulugurus. The mountains are notable for their ancient forests, which botanists estimate to be around 25 million year old — some of the oldest forests on the continent. The ancient woodlands support an incredible array of bird and insect life, as well as diverse plant species. The indigenous Luguru tribe offers cultural tourism programmes around the Ulugurus and outside Morogoro.